* UC Irvine access only
Last Updated: Jul 1, 2014
- American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
National organization advocating individual rights, by litigating, legislating, and educating the public on a broad array of issues affecting individual freedom in the United States. Position papers, updates on legislation, how to obtain legal advice.
- Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence
Devoted to creating an America free from gun violence, where all Americans are safe at home, at school, at work, and in our communities. The Brady Campaign works to pass and enforce sensible federal and state gun laws, regulations, and public policies through grassroots activism, electing public officials who support common sense gun laws, and increasing public awareness of gun violence.
- Cato Institute
The Cato Institute is a public policy research organization — a think tank — dedicated to the principles of individual liberty, limited government, free markets and peace. Its scholars and analysts conduct independent, nonpartisan research on a wide range of policy issues.
- Change.org | Prosecute the killer of our son, 17-year-old Trayvon Martin
According to the Los Angeles Times, "an online petition at Change.org demanding Zimmerman's prosecution has received more than 2.2 million signatures -- the single biggest reaction the online petition platform has ever had..."
- National Rifle Association (NRA)
"The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is an American non-profit 501(c)(4) organization which advocates for the protection of the Second Amendment of the United States Bill of Rights and the promotion of firearm ownership rights as well as marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and self-defense in the United States..."
- NRA-ILA Home
The Institute for Legislative Action (ILA) is the lobbying arm of the NRA. Established in 1975, ILA is committed to preserving the right of all law-abiding individuals to purchase, possess and use firearms for legitimate purposes as guaranteed by the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
- Stand-Your-Ground Law, Wikipedia
"A stand-your-ground law states that a person may use deadly force in self-defense when there is reasonable belief of a threat, without an obligation to retreat first. In some cases, a person may use deadly force in public areas without a duty to retreat..."
- Castle Doctrine, Wikipedia
"A Castle Doctrine (also known as a Castle Law or a Defense of Habitation Law) is an American legal doctrine that designates a person's abode (or, in some states, any place legally occupied, such as a car or place of work) as a place in which the person has certain protections and immunities and may in certain circumstances attack an intruder without becoming liable to prosecution..."
- Jansen, Steven. "Castle Doctrine." The Encyclopedia of Housing. Ed. Andrew T. Carswell. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2012. 50-51. SAGE knowledge.
"The Castle Doctrine is a common law theory of justification, which allows an individual to use reasonable force, up to deadly force if necessary, to defend self or others in the home against the attack of intruders. The American-based theory of Castle Doctrine can be traced back to early English common law. The doctrine's name originates from the common adage “Every man's house is his castle.”
- McCormick, Albert E. Jr. (2014) "The Enforcement of Florida's "Stand Your Ground" Law: Preliminary Findings," The Journal of Public and Professional Sociology: Vol. 6: Iss. 1, Article 1.
- Yu, Yue. "Deterrence Effect of Stand Your Ground Law on Crime in Eastern US States." Atlantic Economic Journal 42.1 (2014): 119-120.
- Randolph, Jennifer (2014) "How to Get Away with Murder: Criminal and Civil Immunity Provisions in "Stand Your Ground" Legislation," Seton Hall Law Review: Vol. 44: Iss. 2, Article 6.
- Lee, Cynthia. "Making Race Salient: Trayvon Martin and Implicit Bias in a Not Yet Post-Racial Society." (2013).
- Mays, Vickie M., et al. "Using the Science of Psychology to Target Perpetrators of Racism and Race-Based Discrimination For Intervention Efforts..." Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology 5.1 (2013)
- Toporek, Rebecca L. "Violence against Individuals and Communities: Reflecting on the Trayvon Martin Case-An Introduction to the Special Issue." Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology 5.1 (2013): 1.
- Beety, Valena Elizabeth. "What the Brain Saw: The Case of Trayvon Martin and the Need for Eyewitness Identification Reform." Denv. UL Rev. 90 (2012): 331-801. Available via UCI Licensed Resource.
- Schulze, Louis. "Of Trayvon Martin, George Zimmerman, and Legal Expressivism: Why Massachusetts Should Stand its Ground on." New England Law Review On Remand 47.34 (2012).
- Cheng, Cheng, and Mark Hoekstra. Does Strengthening Self-Defense Law Deter Crime or Escalate Violence? Evidence from Castle Doctrine. No. w18134. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2012.
- Lawson, Tamara. "A Fresh Cut In An Old Wound–A Critical Analysis of the Trayvon Martin Killing: The Public Outcry, the Prosecutors’ Discretion, and the Stand Your Ground Law." University of Florida Journal of Law and Public Policy, Forthcoming (2012).
- Richardson, L. Song, and Phillip Goff. "Self Defense and the Suspicion Heuristic." Iowa Law Review 98 (2012): 293.
- Finegan, Sharon. "Watching the Watchers: The Growing Privatization of Criminal Law and the Need for Limits on Neighborhood Watch Associations." Available at SSRN (2012).
- George Zimmerman and the Right to Violence, Stein, Joshua (August 29, 2012). Available at SSRN
- McClellan, Chandler B., and Erdal Tekin. Stand your ground laws and homicides. No. w18187. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2012.
- Zachary L. Weaver, "Florida's Stand Your Ground Law: The Actual Effects and the Need for Clarification," 63 U. Miami L. Rev. 395 (2008-2009). Available via UCI Licensed Resource.
- Holliday, Wyatt. "Answer to Criminal Aggression is Retaliation: Stand-Your-Ground Laws and the Liberalization of Self-Defense, The." U. Tol. L. Rev. 43 (2011): 407. Available via UCI Licensed Resource.
- Megale, Elizabeth. "Deadly Combinations: How Self-Defense Laws Pairing Immunity with a Presumption of Fear Allow Criminals to'Get Away with Murder'." American Journl of Trial Advocacy 34 (2010): 105.
- Denise Paquette Boots, et al. "The State of the Castle: An Overview of Recent Trends in State Castle Doctrine Legislation and Public Policy." Criminal Justice Review. (March 5, 2009).
- Ross, Luevonda P. "Transmogrification of Self-Defense by national Rifle Association-Inspired Statutes: From the Doctrine of Retreat to the Right to Stand Your Ground." SUL Rev. 35 (2007). Available via UCI Licensed Resource.
- NPR, 'Stand Your Ground' Linked To Increase In Homicides SHANKAR VEDANTAM and DAVID SCHULTZ January 02, 2013
"If a stranger attacks you inside your own home, the law has always permitted you to defend yourself. On the other hand, if an altercation breaks out in public, the law requires you to try to retreat. At least, that's what it used to do.,,"
- Time Magazine (Apr. 09, 2012), by John Cloud: "The Law Heard Round The World"
"The killing of Trayvon Martin has kindled a moral and legal debate over race as searing as any since 1955, when 14-year-old Emmett Till was murdered in Mississippi for allegedly whistling at a white woman. George Zimmerman, 28, a former altar boy and wannabe cop, fired the bullet that killed Martin, 17, on Feb. 26 in Sanford, Fla., outside Orlando. Zimmerman has said that Martin brutally assaulted him. But even if that's true, what kind of law would excuse Zimmerman's deadly shot?"
- Washington Post (Apr 7, 2012), by Marc Fisher and Dan Eggen: "Stand Your Ground laws coincide with jump in justifiable-homicide cases."
"When Billy Kuch knocked on the wrong door, he had a cigarette in one hand and a shirt in the other. The homeowner, Gregory Stewart, stepped outside, stood his ground, fired a round from his semiautomatic into Kuch’s chest, and in the eyes of the state of Florida, committed no crime..."
- Huffington Post (April 3, 2012), by Lyle Denniston: "Constitution Check: Is There a Constitutional Right to "Stand Your Ground"?"
"The statement at issue: "The stand-your-ground law is one portion of justifiable use of deadly force. And what that means is that the state must go forward and be able to prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt... It makes the case in general more difficult than a normal criminal case." -Angela Corey, State Attorney in Jacksonville, Fla., who has been appointed to lead the investigation into the February 26 shooting death of 17-year-old Trayvon Martin in Sanford, Fla. Corey commented to ABC News on March 26 about the possible prosecution of the individual who has said he shot the youth in self-defense..."
- Washington Times (April 2, 2012), by David Kopel: "Debunking the ‘stand your ground’ myth Anti-gun advocates mislead on Trayvon case to erode right to self-defense"
Whatever happened on the night that George Zimmerman shot Trayvon Martin, we know one thing for sure: The gun prohibition lobbies and their compliant media friends have been deceiving the public about Florida’s laws. Among the many deceits is the claim that Florida’s “stand your ground” law affects the legality of whatever Mr. Zimmerman did.